Thursday, October 31, 2013 | By National Geographic News | No Comments
As the use of renewable power on the electric grid ramps up, utilities are turning to technology that makes it easier for natural gas to smooth out the bumps in supply.
Thursday, October 31, 2013 | By The Wilderness Society | No Comments
A pair of new bills introduced in the U.S. Senate this week show promising signs for establishing a new standard for clean, renewable energy. The bills, the American Renewable Energy and Efficiency Act from Sen. Markey (Mass.) and the Renewable Electricity Standard Act of 2013 from Sens.
Wednesday, October 30, 2013 | By The Wilderness Society | No Comments
This Halloween, you need only venture into wilderness to be chilled to the bone. These scary places are inhabited by a wild beauty, and most by a ghost or two as well. Here are some haunted wild places that are sure to raise some wild hairs:
Wednesday, October 30, 2013 | By Kitty Dunn | No Comments
Wisconsin lakes are haunted, just not necessarily by ghosts.
Today on the shores of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin Environment held an event to release “Ten Scary Facts about Factory Farm Runoff,” a new factsheet which compiles ten of the most frightening realities about water pollution from industrial agriculture. The group was joined by Darren Bush, the owner of Rutabaga Paddlesports, Professor Lydia Zepeda from the School of Human Ecology at UW-Madison, and several activists.
According to Katie Siegner, Clean Water Associate with Wisconsin Environment, “factory farms are a major threat to Wisconsin’s lakes because of the unsustainable amount of waste that they create.” She urged state lawmakers to make fishing and swimming in Wisconsin’s lakes a lot less scary, by ensuring that we stop the spread of factory farms in Wisconsin and protect our lakes for future generations.”
The Halloween-themed event comes after a summer where pollution on iconic lakes such as Madison’s Lake Mendota has become much more obvious – in recent years blooms of blue-green algae have choked parts of the lake and release unpleasant odors that diminish the lake’s recreational appeal.
“Wisconsin’s lakes are a central part of the way we experience the outdoors here, and they deserve the strongest protections possible so that their water quality will be preserved and strengthened for future generations,” said Darren Bush of Rutabaga Paddlesports.
The most frightening facts revealed today include:
*Three-fourths of the phosphorus pollution affecting Lake Mendota comes from factory farm runoff.
*One pound of phosphorus, a nutrient found in animal waste, can produce from 300 to 500 pounds of algae.
*Industrial agriculture in Wisconsin creates as much untreated waste each year as 69 million people. That’s 100 times more than the population of Milwaukee. And much of this waste runs off into our lakes and streams.
“When you think of Wisconsin, you think of the dairy state, small farms producing delicious dairy products,” said UW-Madison Professor of Consumer Science Lydia Zepeda. “People don’t realize that huge dairies are transforming our beautiful state. A 2,000 cow dairy produces well over 200,000 pounds of manure a day and it is going into our lakes and rivers.”
The organization is calling on the state legislature to act now and say no to the permitting of new factory farms, and says more than 10,000 Wisconsinites have already signed petitions calling on the state to protect our lakes from factory farm runoff.
“It’s time to give Wisconsin’s lakes the Halloween treat they deserve – protection from Big Ag polluters,” said Siegner. “We thank the state legislature for passing the clean water laws already on the books here in Wisconsin, but recognize that they’re not receiving the enforcement that our lakes deserve. A halt to the expansion of CAFOs in the state would help ensure that our lakes are healthy and clean enough to fish in, swim in, and drink from without the fear of getting sick.”
Information from Wisconsin Environment.
Image credit: wikimedia commons (Mirror Lake State Park).
Wednesday, October 30, 2013 | By Great Energy Challenge | No Comments
The greenish sheen that sometimes appears on still water is actually a potential energy powerhouse–cyanobacteria, a microorganism that manufactures its own energy through photosynthesis.
Biotechnology companies today are working to develop cyanobacteria, algae, and even municipal waste as feedstocks for advanced biofuels. But these promising abundant non-food sources lack either the government subsidies or the commercial markets that support production of biofuels from the conventional feedstocks you likely are familiar with: corn, sugarcane, and soy.
Algae biodiesel and biofuels have made great strides toward commercial development since 2008, even though they were not fully incorporated into the important U.S. regulation that went into place that year to spur development of alternatives to petroleum fuel: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). For other potential advanced biofuel feedstocks, too, the financial and regulatory landscape presents challenges. Animal fats, for example, are normally disposed of as waste products, but they could be collected and marketed by building on established value chains. But when ordinary municipal solid waste is collected, it is not sorted by cellulosic and non-cellulosic content. (That means we don’t typically separate the waste that has plant fiber suitable for biofuel production.) To tap into the biofuel potential of municipal solid waste, the feedstock sources need to be established in tandem with biorefineries and downstream value chains.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has now approved 19 biofuel pathways for companies to produce and sell renewable fuels under the RFS, including pathways for all the promising new feedstocks I’ve mentioned. However, there is a backlog of 32 applications still awaiting review. The average wait time for these pathway petitions is more than a year, but cellulosic and advanced petitions have had considerably longer waits than the pathways for more conventional biofuel sources.
Companies across the United States and around the world have shown interest in these developing feedstocks:
Micromidas, a California based start-up, has developed microorganisms that transform municipal sewage to polyhydroxybutylvalerate (PHBV), a biologically derived and biodegradable plastic.
Solazyme, located in Palo Alto, California, is pioneering algal strains that can produce tailored fatty acid oils, with controlled chain lengths and polyunsaturated fat levels. These petroleum-type “drop-in” oils can be refined and processed with existing infrastructure, including pipelines and service stations, used to deliver petroleum fuels to cars and trucks today. The technology is feedstock flexible, meaning it can use a variety of sugars, including sugarcane-based sucrose, corn-based dextrose and other biomass sources such as cellulosics.
Gevo, headquartered in Englewood, Colorado, combines synthetic biology and chemistry to produce isobutanol, a versatile platform chemical for liquid fuels and petrochemicals. Using a proprietary platform, Gevo coaxes modified yeasts to ferment sugars to isobutanol, which can then be used as a solvent or a gasoline blendstock that can help refiners meet their renewable fuel and clean air obligations.
Additionally, several companies utilizing new feedstocks for advanced biofuels have applications under review at the EPA:
Agrisoma Biosciences, headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, is under EPA review for its Agrisoma Engineered Trait Loci (ETL) technology, which can turn Brassica carinata oil (Ethiopian mustard) into various forms of renewable fuel, including jet fuel. Brassica carinata has an oil profile optimized for use in the biofuel industry. It is extremely well suited for production in semi-arid areas and can offer good resistance to biotic stressors, such as insects. Agrisoma’s technology converts this feedstock into fuel by introducing all desired traits in one cycle into a specific crop chromosome, creating an optimal genetic environment.
EdeniQ, headquartered in Visalia, California, is seeking EPA approval for technology that allows the company to turn corn kernel fiber into ethanol. EdeniQ has integrated mechanical and biological processes into its biorefineries that allow them then to convert non-food plant materials into low costing cellulosic sugars.
The Iogen Corporation, based in Ottawa, Ontario, is another company under EPA review, seeking approval for conversion of a newer feedstock into ethanol. Iogen possesses the technology to covert grain sorghum into ethanol, which can later be utilized as clean fuel. Using enzymes, the company can transform biomass into sugars that are eventually fermented into ethanol which can later be purified into fuel.
Poet Biorefining-Chancellor, located in Chancellor, South Dakota, has a technology collaboration agreement with Agrivida to develop the company’s technology platforms. One of these platforms under EPA review is the capability to convert sorghum into high-performance feedstock through a protein-engineering process. Once converted, these feedstocks will be used for bio-based fuels, chemicals and animal feed.
These various forms of feedstocks can potentially become permanent cleaner alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Policy changes – such as reducing regulatory barriers and leveling the playing field with incentives – are needed to ensure companies continue to make research investments in developing novel advanced feedstocks.
Unfortunately, a draft EPA proposal for the 2014 RFS rules unlawfully leaked to the media has raised concerns over whether next-generation biofuels will continue to get the support that they need. The RFS is intended to make sure that if biofuel producers can attract the investment, build the value chains for new feedstocks, and commercialize the technology for advanced biofuels, then the U.S. transportation fuel market will be open for them. The leaked draft proposal would reverse the logic of the rule, saying there would be a limit on how open the market would be. The leaked draft has already created uncertainty about the regulatory policy for investors and advanced biofuel companies. If the EPA does reverse the RFS by proposing or working to finalize a rule that looks like the leaked draft, many promising new biofuel technologies might never be developed.
We need the kind of regulatory certainty that will provide companies with the assurance they need to invest in these novel technologies and get new products through the pipeline. We continue to encourage EPA to speed RFS pathway reviews and approve new feedstocks. And, we encourage Congress to include advanced biofuel incentives in tax extenders packages to ensure that this industry will continue to grow and prosper.
Brent Erickson is executive vice president, industrial and environment section, of the U.S.-based Biotechnology Industry Organization. Erickson participated in Biofuels at a Crossroads, a Great Energy Challenge event that took place earlier this year at National Geographic headquarters. You can see more from Erickson and others in the videos collected here.